Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.
2018 Nov 20
Designing a Diving Protocol for Thermocline Identification Using Dive Computers in Marine Citizen Science
Egi S. M., Cousteau P., Pieri M., Cerrano C., Özyigit T., and Marroni A.
Dive computers have an important potential for citizen science projects where recreational SCUBA divers can upload the depth temperature profile and the geolocation of the dive to a central database which may provide useful information about the subsurface temperature of the oceans. However, their accuracy may not be adequate and needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and precision of dive computers and provide guidelines in order to enable their contribution to citizen science projects. Twenty-two dive computers were evaluated during real ocean dives for consistency and scatter in the first phase.
Detection of venous gas emboli after repetitive breath hold dives “Case report”
Cialoni D., Pieri M., Giunchi G., Sponsiello N., Lanzone A.M., Torcello L., Boaretto G. and Marroni A.
Introduction: Neurological symptoms after breathhold (BH) diving are often referred to as "Taravana" and considered a form of decompression sickness. However, the presence of "high" gas embolism after BH diving has never been clearly shown. This study showed high bubble formation after BH diving.
Materials and methods: We performed transthoracic echocardiography on a 53-year-old male spearfishing diver (180 cm; 80 kg; BMI 24.7) 15 minutes before diving and at 15-minute intervals for 90 minutes after diving in a 42-meter-deep pool. Number of dives, bottom time and surface intervals were freely determined by the diver. Dive profiles were digitally recorded for depth, time and surface interval, using a freediving computer. Relative surface interval (surface interval/diving time) and gradient factor were calculated.
Dive Risk Factors, gas bubble formation, and decompression illness in recreational SCUBA diving: Analysis of DAN Europe DSL Data Base
Cialoni D, Pieri M, Balestra C & Marroni A.
Introduction: The popularity of SCUBA diving is steadily increasing together with the number of dives and correlated diseases per year. The rules that govern correct decompression procedures are considered well known even if the majority of Decompression Sickness (DCS) cases are considered unexpected confirming a bias in the "mathematical ability" to predict DCS by the current algorithms. Furthermore, little is still known about diving risk factors and any individual predisposition to DCS. This study provides an in-depth epidemiological analysis of the diving community, to include additional risk factors correlated with the development of circulating bubbles and DCS.
The editors of and authors of this book are a cadre of scientists and physicians with broad experience and knowledge of diving physiology and decompression theory. As is often the case, it requires a group effort to succeed in advancing practical knowledge. The colloquialism "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts" is often true and the PHYPODE Reasearch Group epitomizes this concept. By logically grouping the various elements of diving science and medicine with provocative "food for thought" sections, the text offers valuable lessons to those interested in the current state of diving. Despite nearly 170 years of reasearch, the fundamenal nature of decompression stress remains elusive. As is well outlined in this book, great advances have been made to the practical elements allowing for safe diving. Nonetheless, there are glaring voids of knowledge related to the nature of bubble nucleation, its consequences and methods to ameliorate risk. The synergy exhibited in this text not only provides a foundation for what is known, it offers a glimpse of where research is taking us. - Professor Stephen R. Thom, Dept. of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine.
Diving physiopathology: the end of certainties? Food for thought
Balestra C, Germonpre P, Rocco M, Biancofiore G & Kot J.
Our understanding of decompression physiopathology has slowly improved during this last decade and some uncertainties have disappeared. A better understanding of anatomy and functional aspects of patent foramen ovale (PFO) have slowly resulted in a more liberal approach toward the medical fitness to dive for those bearing a PFO. Circulating vascular gas emboli (VGE) are considered the key actors in development of decompression sickness and can be considered as markers of decompression stress indicating induction of pathophysiological processes not necessarily leading to occurrence of disease symptoms.
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