Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2020 Jan 1
Hyperoxia and oxidative stress in anesthesia and critical care medicine
Ottolenghi S, Sabbatini G, Brizzolari A, Samaja M, Chiumello D.

Oxygen administration is particularly relevant in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia and in those who suffer from acute or critical illness. Nevertheless, excess O2, or hyperoxia, is also known to be harmful. Toxicity arises from the enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, exceeding the antioxidant defense, may generate oxidative stress.

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2019 Jun 26
Variation of Cognitive Function During a Short Stay at Hypobaric Hypoxia Chamber (Altitude: 3842 M)
De Bels D, Pierrakos C, Bruneteau A, Reul F, Crevecoeur Q, Marrone N, Vissenaeken D, Borgers G, Balestra C, Honore PM & Theunissen S.

Objective To observe the effects of a fast-acute ascent to high altitude on brain cognitive function and transcranial doppler parameters in order to understand the physiological countermeasures of hypoxia. Methods 17 high-altitude-naïve male subjects (mean age was 26.3 ± 8.1 years) participated in the study. We measured Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency (CFFF), blood oxygen saturation, Psychology Experiment Building (PEBL) including three tests (Modified Math Processing Task, Perceptual Vigilance Task, and Time Estimation Task), as well as Cerebral Blood Flow index (CBFi), mean cerebral artery Systolic and diastolic velocities, Cerebral Pulsatility index (CPi), and heart Rate. All were measured at sea level, at least 1 h after arrival at the hypobaric hypoxia equivalent of 3842 m and 1 h after return to sea level.

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2009 Apr 1
Safety of recreatiional scuba diving in type 1 diabetic patients. The Deep Monitoring programme
Bonomo M., Cairoli R., Verde G., Morelli L., Moreo A., Delle Grottaglie M., Brambilla M.C., Meneghini E., Aghemo P., Corigliano G., Marroni A.

Aim: To verify whether, with thorough practical and theoretical training, well-controlled, non-complicated diabetic patients can safely go diving underwater with no additional medical or metabolic risks. Methods: Twelve diabetic patients participated in the study after undergoing training focused on their diabetic status. Two dives per day were scheduled during two five-day stays on the island of Ventotene (Italy). Capillary blood glucose (BG) was checked at 60, 30 and 10 minutes before diving, and corrective measures adopted if necessary, based on BG absolute levels and dynamics. A device for continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM), expressly modified for the purpose, was worn during dives.

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2014 Dec 1
Recreational diving today: decompression habits, DAN Europe database insights
Balestra C, Cialoni D, Buzzacott P, Hemelryck W, Papadopoulou V, Pieri M & Marroni A.

Compared with other sports, SCUBA diving remains a relatively safe activity but precisely defining risk is important. Diving databases such as the Diving Safety Laboratory (DSL) collection by Divers Alert Network (DAN) Europe can provide new insights into the causes of diving accidents, including decompression sickness (DCS) incidence with respect to the dive profile. Data from the DSL shows that in the recreational setting diving with a dive computer may be used by as many as 95% of divers. This points to the need of validating these tools with respect to DCS incidence, a difficult task.

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2017 Aug 2
Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO), personality traits, and iterative decompression sickness. Retrospective analysis of 209 cases
Lafère P., Balestra C., Caers D., Germonpré P.

Introduction: There is a need to evaluate the influence of risk factors such as patency of foramen ovale (PFO) or “daredevil” psychological profile on contra-indication policy after a decompression sickness (DCS).

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