Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2020 Apr 17
Early Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 1 Diabetes Is Accompanied by an Impairment of Vascular Smooth Muscle
Elodie Lespagnol, Luc Dauchet, Mehdi Pawlak-Chaouch, Costantino Balestra, Serge Berthoin, Martin Feelisch, Matthieu Roustit, Julien Boissière, Pierre Fontaine, Elsa Heyman

Background: A large yet heterogeneous body of literature exists suggesting that endothelial dysfunction appears early in type 1 diabetes, due to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The latter may also affect vascular smooth muscles (VSM) function, a layer albeit less frequently considered in that pathology. This meta-analysis aims at evaluating the extent, and the contributing risk factors, of early endothelial dysfunction, and of the possible concomitant VSM dysfunction, in type 1 diabetes. Methods: PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane Library databases were screened from their respective inceptions until October 2019. We included studies comparing vasodilatory capacity depending or not on endothelium (i.e., endothelial function or VSM function, respectively) in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes and healthy controls.

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2020 Mar 1
Field Study of Anthropomorphic and Muscle Performance Changes Among Elite Skippers Following a Transoceanic Race
Pierre Lafère, Yann Gatzoff, François Guerrero, Steven Provyn, Costantino Balestra

Background: Ocean racing has become increasingly demanding, both physically and psychologically. The aim of the study was to assess global changes after a transoceanic race. Materials and methods: Eight male sailors were evaluated pre- and post-race through anthropometric measurements (weight, skinfold, girth at different level and estimated body fat percentage), multifrequency tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance, muscular performance, visual analogic scale for perceived fatigue and Critical Flicker Fusion Frequencies for cerebral arousal.

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2020 Feb 12
Hyperoxia Alters Ultrastructure and Induces Apoptosis in Leukemia Cell Lines
David De Bels, Frauke Tillmans, Francis Corazza, Mariano Bizzarri, Peter Germonpre, Peter Radermacher, Keziban Günce Orman, and Costantino Balestra

Oxygenation conditions are crucial for growth and tumor progression. Recent data suggests a decrease in cancer cell proliferation occurring after exposure to normobaric hyperoxia. Those changes are associated with fractal dimension. The purpose of this research was to study the impact of hyperoxia on apoptosis and morphology of leukemia cell lines. Two hematopoietic lymphoid cancer cell lines (a T-lymphoblastoid line, JURKAT and a B lymphoid line, CCRF-SB) were tested under conditions of normobaric hyperoxia (FiO2 > 60%, ± 18h) and compared to a standard group (FiO2 = 21%). We tested for apoptosis using a caspase-3 assay.

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2019 Nov 27
Doppler ultrasound dataset for the development of automatic emboli detection algorithms
Paola Pierleoni, Marco Mercuri Alberto Belli, Massimo Pieri, Alessandro Marroni, Lorenzo Palma

The article describes a dataset of doppler ultrasound audio tracks taken on a sample of 30 divers according to the acquisition protocol defined by the Divers Alert Network. The audio tracks are accompanied by a medical evaluation for the decompression sickness risk according to the Spencer's scale levels. During the acquisition campaign, each diver in the post-dive phase was subjected to a double doppler ultrasound examination of approximately 45 seconds each one in the precordial area using a Huntleigh FD1 Fetal doppler probe. The two measurements were separated by a time of 8-10 seconds necessary for carrying out specific physical exercises designed to free the bubbles trapped in the tissues.

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2019 Nov 8
Evaluation of Divers’ Neuropsychometric Effectiveness and High-Pressure Neurological Syndrome via Computerized Test Battery Package and Questionnaires in Operational Setting
Berenji Ardestani Simin, Balestra Costantino, Bouzinova Elena V., Loennechen Øyvind, Pedersen Michael

Introduction: When divers are compressed to water depths deeper than 150 meter sea water (msw), symptoms of high-pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) might appear due to rapid increase in pressure on the central nervous system during compression. The aim of this study was to first operate a new computerized tool, designed to monitor divers’ wellbeing and cognitive function, and to record the results. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of the Physiopad software and HPNS questionnaires as a new tool for monitoring divers wellbeing in an operational setting, including sensible visualization and presentation of results. Methods: The Physiopad was operated onboard Deep Arctic (TechnipFMC Diving Support Vessel). The diving work was performed between 180 and 207 msw. The data from 46 divers were collected from the HPNS questionnaires, Hand dynamometry test, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency test (CFFF), Adaptive Visual Analog Scale (AVAS), Simple Math Process (MathProc test), Perceptual Vigilance Task (PVT), and Time Estimation Task (time-wall).

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