Publications

Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2018 Apr 3
Variability in circulating gas emboli after a same scuba diving exposure
Papadopoulou V., Germonpré P., Cosgrove D., Eckersley RJ., Dayton PA., Obeid G., Boutros A., Tang MX., Theunissen S., Balestra C.

PURPOSE: A reduction in ambient pressure or decompression from scuba diving can result in ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (VGE). These environmental exposures carry a risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules; however, bubbles are routinely observed for dives well within these limits and significant inter-personal variability in DCS risk exists. Here, we assess the variability and evolution of VGE for 2 h post-dive using echocardiography, following a standardized pool dive in calm warm conditions.

Read more

2018 Mar 31
Spirometry and oxidative stress after rebreather diving in warm water
Bosco G., Rizzato A., Quartesan S., Camporesi E., Mrakic-Sposta S., Moretti S., Balestra C., Rubini A.

Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and use of enriched air can result in oxidative injury affecting the brain, lungs and eyes. HBO₂ exposure during diving can lead to a decrease in respiratory parameters. However, the possible effects of acute exposure to oxygen-enriched diving on subsequent spirometric performance and oxidative state in humans have not been recently described recently. We aim to investigate possible effects of acute (i) hyperbaric and (ii) hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure using scuba or closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) on subsequent spirometry and to assess the role of oxidative state after hyperoxic diving.

Read more

2018 Mar 27
Cellular Glucose Uptake During Breath-Hold Diving in Experienced Male Breath-Hold Divers
Sponsiello N., Cialoni D., Pieri M., Marroni A.

Background: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport. Methods: Twenty male experienced healthy breath-hold divers were studied. Anthropometric information was obtained. Glycemia, insulinemia, and catecholamine response were investigated before and after the series of BH-diving. Results

Read more

2018 Mar 27
Echocardiography is able to detect morphological and functional changes of the right heart in sport Scuba Divers
Pudil R, Horakova L, Rozloznik M & Balestra C.

Introduction: Scuba diving represents stressful event for cardiovascular system. Breathing with compressed air, hyperbaric environment and microbubbles formation are the main factors are the most influencing factors for pulmonary circulation. Hypothesis: The aim of the study was to evaluate the change in morphology and function of the right heart after scuba dive with compressed air.

Read more

2018 Mar 23
Safety Priorities and Underestimations in Recreational Scuba Diving Operations: A European Study Supporting the Implementation of New Risk Management Programmes
Lucrezi S., Egi S. M., Pieri M., Burman F., Ozyigit T., Cialoni D., Thomas G., Marroni A., Saayman M.

Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers’ and dive centres’ perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry.

Read more