Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2021 Aug 21
Serum Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Marker Changes in Repetitive Breath-hold Diving
Cialoni D, Brizzolari A, Sponsiello N, Lancellotti V, Lori C, Bosco G, Marroni A & Barassi A.

Background: Breath-hold diving (BH-diving) is associated to extreme environmental conditions, prolonged physical activity, and complex adaptation mechanisms to supply enough O2 to vital organs. Consequently, one of the biggest effects could be an increased exercise-induced muscle fatigue, in both skeletal and cardiac muscles that can induce an increase of muscles injury markers including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) when concerning the skeletal muscle, cardiac creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MBm) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) when concerning the cardiac muscle, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as index of muscle stress. The aim of this study is to investigate serum cardiac and skeletal muscle markers before and after a BH-diving training session. Results: We found statistically significant increases of CK (T0: 136.1% p < 0.0001; T1: 138.5%, p < 0.0001), CK-MBm (T0: 145.1%, p < 0.0001; T1: 153.2%, p < 0.0001) LDH (T0: 110.4%, p < 0.0003; T1: 110.1%, p < 0.0013) in both T0 and T1 blood samples, as compared to basal value. AST showed a statistically significant increase only at T0 (106.8%, p < 0.0007) while ALT did not exhibit statistically significant changes. We did not find any changes in cTnI levels between pre-dive and post-dive samples.

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2021 Aug 10
Assessment of Alertness and Cognitive Performance of Closed Circuit Rebreather Divers With the Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency Test in Arctic Diving Conditions
Piispanen Wilhelme W., Lundell Richard V., Tuominen Laura J., Räisänen-Sokolowski Anne K.

SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation.

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2021 Jul 28
High-Throughput Griess Assay of Nitrite and Nitrate in Plasma and Red Blood Cells for Human Physiology Studies under Extreme Conditions
Brizzolari, A.; Dei Cas, M.; Cialoni, D.; Marroni, A.; Morano, C.; Samaja, M.; Paroni, R.; Rubino, F.M.

The metabolism of nitric oxide plays an increasingly interesting role in the physiological response of the human body to extreme environmental conditions, such as underwater, in an extremely cold climate, and at low oxygen concentrations.

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2021 Jul 26
Heart Rate Variability during a standard dive: a role for inspired oxygen pressure?
Pierre Lafère, Kate Lambrechts, Peter Germonpre, Ambre Balestra, Faye Lisa Germonpré, Alessandro Marroni, Danilo Cialoni, Gerardo Bosco, Costantino Balestra

Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) during underwater diving has been infrequently investigated because of environment limitations and technical challenges. This study aims to analyze HRV changes while diving at variable hyperoxia when using open circuit (OC) air diving apparatus or at constant hyperoxia using a closed-circuit rebreather (CCR).

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2021 Jul 9
Endothelial Nitric Oxide Production and Antioxidant Response in Breath-Hold Diving: Genetic Predisposition or Environment Related?
Cialoni D, Brizzolari A, Samaja M, Bosco G, Paganini M, Sponsiello N, Lancellotti V & Marroni A.

Introduction: Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule modulating the endothelial adaptation during breath-hold diving (BH-diving). This study aimed to investigate changes in NO derivatives (NOx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), searching for correlations with different environmental and hyperbaric exposure. Materials and methods: Blood samples were obtained from 50 breath-hold divers (BH-divers) before, and 30 and 60 min after the end of training sessions performed both in a swimming pool or the sea. Samples were tested for NOx and TAC differences in different groups related to their hyperbaric exposure, experience, and additional genetic polymorphism.

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