Publications

Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2009 Jan 1
An Introduction to Clinical Aspect of Decompression Illness (DCI)
Balestra C.

Decompression Illness (DCI), Decompression Sickness (DCS), Dysbaric Illness (DI), disorder, syndrome are terms associated with the clinical signs or symptoms originally generated by a reduction of absolute pressure surrounding the patient. For 100 years the definition of the “disease” is a matter of “disputes” or “consensi”. We understand nowadays that it is not enough to know how to cure evident clinical manifestations, but also to reduce or virtually eliminate the primary physical cause for the physiological damages: the gas separation phase from saturated tissues – stationary or circulating bubbles.

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2009 Jan 1
Discussion: Decompression Physiology and Methodology
Molvaer O.I., Gennser M., Brubakk A., Ellingsen O., Gardiner B., Hope A., Moon R., Richardson R., Dujic Z., Doolette D., Perdrizet G., Lindholm P., Ross J., Eftedal O., Angelini S., Kayar S., Gutvik C., Gaustad S., Thorsen E., Balestra C., Jacobsen J.E., Pontier J., Fahlman A., Mollerlokken A., Skjerven L., Masoy S., Knaus D, Buckey J., Blatteau J., Arnfinsen A., Havnes M.

This publication of the proceedings of “The Future of Diving: 100 Years of Haldane and Beyond” is co-sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and Trondheim University. The symposium was convened by the Baromedical and Environmental Physiology Group of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway, on 18–19 December 2008.

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2009 Jan 1
Discussion: Diving Researcher Recruitment
Molvaer O.I., Gennser M., Brubakk A., Ellingsen O., Gardiner B., Hope A., Moon R., Richardson R., Dujic Z., Doolette D., Perdrizet G., Lindholm P., Ross J., Eftedal O., Angelini S., Kayar S., Gutvik C., Gaustad S., Thorsen E., Balestra C., Jacobsen J.E., Pontier J., Fahlman A., Mollerlokken A., Skjerven L., Masoy S., Knaus D, Buckey J., Blatteau J., Arnfinsen A., Havnes M.

This publication of the proceedings of “The Future of Diving: 100 Years of Haldane and Beyond” is co-sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and Trondheim University. The symposium was convened by the Baromedical and Environmental Physiology Group of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway, on 18–19 December 2008.

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2007 Nov 30
Effect of varying deep stop times and shallow stop times on precordial bubbles after dives to 25 msw (82 fsw)
Bennett PB1, Marroni A, Cronje FJ, Cali-Corleo R, Germonpre P, Pieri M, Bonuccelli C, Leonardi MG, Balestra C.

In our previous research, a deep 5-min stop at 15 msw (50 fsw), in addition to the typical 3-5 min shallow stop, significantly reduced precordial Doppler detectable bubbles (PDDB) and "fast" tissue compartment gas tensions during decompression from a 25 msw (82 fsw) dive; the optimal ascent rate was 10 msw (30 fsw/min). Since publication of these results, several recreational diving agencies have recommended empirical stop times shorter than the 5 min stops that we used, stops of as little as 1 min (deep) and 2 min (shallow). In our present study, we clarified the optimal time for stops by measuring PDDB with several combinations of deep and shallow stop times following single and repetitive open-water dives to 25 msw (82 fsw) for 25 mins and 20 minutes respectively; ascent rate was 10 msw/min (33 fsw). Among 15 profiles, stop time ranged from 1 to 10 min for both the deep stops (15 msw/50 fsw) and the shallow stops (6 msw/20 fsw). Dives with 2 1/2 min deep stops yielded the lowest PDDB scores--shorter or longer deep stops were less effective in reducing PDDB. The results confirm that a deep stop of 1 min is too short--it produced the highest PDDB scores of all the dives. We also evaluated shallow stop times of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 min while keeping a fixed time of 2.5 min for the deep stop; increased times up to 10 min at the shallow stop did not further reduce PDDB. While our findings cannot be extrapolated beyond these dive profiles without further study, we recommend a deep stop of at least 2 1/2 mins at 15 msw (50 fsw) in addition to the customary 6 msw (20 fsw) for 3-5 mins for 25 meter dives of 20 to 25 minutes to reduce PDDB.

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2005 Apr 4
Evidence for increasing patency of the foramen ovale in divers
Germonpre P, Hastir F, Dendale P, Marroni A, Nguyen AF, Balestra C.

Using a standardized contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiographic technique, a group of divers was reexamined for the presence and size of patent foramen ovale (PFO) 7 years after their initial examinations. Unexpected but significant increases in the prevalence and size of PFO were found, suggesting a possible increasing risk for decompression sickness in these divers over time.

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