Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2009 May 1
Bubble Detection on Left Atrium Related With Patent Foramen Ovale
Parlak I.B., Egi S.M., Ademoglu A., Germonpre P., Esen O.B., Aydin S., Tekin S., Balestra C., Marroni A., Ieee

Several illnesses such as paradoxical embolism, decompression sickness, migraine and cerebral ischemia are characterized by bubbles which might cross the septum wall between left and right atrium. In this study, we aimed to detect bubbles on echocardiographic frames which are segmented automatically using Snakes method. In recent studies, analyzes are done on fixed ROIs and PFO grading as well. We conclude that our approach would give more accurate results for bubble detection and counting by taking account into entire left atrium (LA) areas.

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2009 Apr 5
Safety of recreational scuba diving in type 1 diabetic patients: the Deep Monitoring programme
Bonomo M1, Cairoli R, Verde G, Morelli L, Moreo A, Grottaglie MD, Brambilla MC, Meneghini E, Aghemo P, Corigliano G, Marroni A.

To verify whether, with thorough practical and theoretical training, well-controlled, non-complicated diabetic patients can safely go diving underwater with no additional medical or metabolic risks. METHODS: Twelve diabetic patients participated in the study after undergoing training focused on their diabetic status. Two dives per day were scheduled during two five-day stays on the island of Ventotene (Italy). Capillary blood glucose (BG) was checked at 60, 30 and 10 minutes before diving, and corrective measures adopted if necessary, based on BG absolute levels and dynamics. A device for continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM), expressly modified for the purpose, was worn during dives.

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2009 Mar 3
Preventive effect of pre-dive hydration on bubble formation in divers
Gempp E, Blatteau JE, Pontier JM, Balestra C, Louge P.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prehydration 90 min before a dive could decrease bubble formation, and to evaluate the consequent adjustments in plasma volume (PV), water balance and plasma surface tension (ST).

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2009 Jan 1
An Introduction to Clinical Aspect of Decompression Illness (DCI)
Balestra C.

Decompression Illness (DCI), Decompression Sickness (DCS), Dysbaric Illness (DI), disorder, syndrome are terms associated with the clinical signs or symptoms originally generated by a reduction of absolute pressure surrounding the patient. For 100 years the definition of the “disease” is a matter of “disputes” or “consensi”. We understand nowadays that it is not enough to know how to cure evident clinical manifestations, but also to reduce or virtually eliminate the primary physical cause for the physiological damages: the gas separation phase from saturated tissues – stationary or circulating bubbles.

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2009 Jan 1
Discussion: Decompression Physiology and Methodology
Molvaer O.I., Gennser M., Brubakk A., Ellingsen O., Gardiner B., Hope A., Moon R., Richardson R., Dujic Z., Doolette D., Perdrizet G., Lindholm P., Ross J., Eftedal O., Angelini S., Kayar S., Gutvik C., Gaustad S., Thorsen E., Balestra C., Jacobsen J.E., Pontier J., Fahlman A., Mollerlokken A., Skjerven L., Masoy S., Knaus D, Buckey J., Blatteau J., Arnfinsen A., Havnes M.

This publication of the proceedings of “The Future of Diving: 100 Years of Haldane and Beyond” is co-sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and Trondheim University. The symposium was convened by the Baromedical and Environmental Physiology Group of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway, on 18–19 December 2008.

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