Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2014 Dec 1
The Science of Diving
Balestra C & Germonpre P.

Decompression illnesses (DCI), or as they are called more scientifically: dysbaric disorders, represent a complex spectrum of pathophysiological conditions with a wide variety of signs and symptoms related to dissolved gas and its subsequent phase change.1,2 Any significant organic or functional dysfunction in individuals who have recently been exposed to a reduction in environmental pressure (i.e., decompression) must be considered as possibly being caused by DCI until proven otherwise.

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2017 Feb 23
Environment-induced pulmonary oedema in healthy individuals
Marabotti C., Cialoni D., Pingitore A.

Infrequently, healthy individuals can develop acute pulmonary oedema when exposed to an extreme or unusual environment (ie, deep dives or high altitudes), especially during physical exertion. High-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) has been reported in 0·5–7·0% of individuals who climb to altitudes higher than 4000 m (according to ascent speed), whereas swimming-induced pulmonary oedema (SIPO) has been reported in a different proportion of individuals engaged in aquatic activities.

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2021 Jul 26
Heart Rate Variability during a standard dive: a role for inspired oxygen pressure?
Pierre Lafère, Kate Lambrechts, Peter Germonpre, Ambre Balestra, Faye Lisa Germonpré, Alessandro Marroni, Danilo Cialoni, Gerardo Bosco, Costantino Balestra

Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) during underwater diving has been infrequently investigated because of environment limitations and technical challenges. This study aims to analyze HRV changes while diving at variable hyperoxia when using open circuit (OC) air diving apparatus or at constant hyperoxia using a closed-circuit rebreather (CCR).

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2021 Jul 28
High-Throughput Griess Assay of Nitrite and Nitrate in Plasma and Red Blood Cells for Human Physiology Studies under Extreme Conditions
Brizzolari, A.; Dei Cas, M.; Cialoni, D.; Marroni, A.; Morano, C.; Samaja, M.; Paroni, R.; Rubino, F.M.

The metabolism of nitric oxide plays an increasingly interesting role in the physiological response of the human body to extreme environmental conditions, such as underwater, in an extremely cold climate, and at low oxygen concentrations.

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2021 Aug 10
Assessment of Alertness and Cognitive Performance of Closed Circuit Rebreather Divers With the Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency Test in Arctic Diving Conditions
Piispanen Wilhelme W., Lundell Richard V., Tuominen Laura J., Räisänen-Sokolowski Anne K.

SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation.

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