Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2022 Oct 10
Dopamine/BDNF loss underscores narcosis cognitive impairment in divers: a proof of concept in a dry condition
Bosco G, Giacon TA, Paolocci N, Vezzoli A, Noce CD, Paganini M, Agrimi J, Garetto G, Cialoni D, D'Alessandro N, Camporesi EM & Mrakic-Sposta S.

Purpose: Divers can experience cognitive impairment due to inert gas narcosis (IGN) at depth. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) rules neuronal connectivity/metabolism to maintain cognitive function and protect tissues against oxidative stress (OxS). Dopamine and glutamate enhance BDNF bioavailability. Thus, we hypothesized that lower circulating BDNF levels (via lessened dopamine and/or glutamate release) underpin IGN in divers, while testing if BDNF loss is associated with increased OxS.

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2022 Jul 17
Varying Oxygen Partial Pressure Elicits Blood-Borne Microparticles Expressing Different Cell-Specific Proteins - Toward a Targeted Use of Oxygen?
Balestra C, Arya AK, Leveque C, Virgili F, Germonpré P, Lambrechts K, Lafère P & Thom SR.

Oxygen is a powerful trigger for cellular reactions, but there are few comparative investigations assessing the effects over a large range of partial pressures. We investigated a metabolic response to single exposures to either normobaric (10%, 15%, 30%, 100%) or hyperbaric (1.4 ATA, 2.5 ATA) oxygen. Forty-eight healthy subjects (32 males/16 females; age: 43.7 ± 13.4 years, height: 172.7 ± 10.07 cm; weight 68.4 ± 15.7 kg) were randomly assigned, and blood samples were taken before and 2 h after each exposure.

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2022 Jun 20
Serum Amino Acid Profile Changes After Repetitive Breath-Hold Dives: A Preliminary Study
Danilo Cialoni, Andrea Brizzolari, Nicola Sponsiello, Valentina Lancellotti, Gerardo Bosco, Alessandro Marroni, Alessandra Barassi

Background: The aim of this work was to investigate the serum amino acid (AA) changes after a breath-hold diving (BH-diving) training session under several aspects including energy need, fatigue tolerance, nitric oxide (NO) production, antioxidant synthesis and hypoxia adaptation. Twelve trained BH-divers were investigated during an open sea training session and sampled for blood 30 min before the training session, 30 min and 4 h after the training session.

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2023 Mar 22
Elevations of Extracellular Vesicles and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers
Arya AK, Balestra C, Bhopale VM, Tuominen LJ, Räisänen-Sokolowski A, Dugrenot E, L'Her E, Bhat AR, Thom SR.

Blood-borne extracellular vesicles and inflammatory mediators were evaluated in divers using a closed circuit rebreathing apparatus and custom-mixed gases to diminish some diving risks. "Deep" divers (n = 8) dove once to mean (±SD) 102.5 ± 1.2 m of sea water (msw) for 167.3 ± 11.5 min. "Shallow" divers (n = 6) dove 3 times on day 1, and then repetitively over 7 days to 16.4 ± 3.7 msw, for 49.9 ± 11.9 min.

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2023 Feb 10
Seasonal Oxy-Inflammation and Hydration Status in Non-Elite Freeskiing Racer: A Pilot Study by Non-Invasive Analytic Method.
Rubino FM, Ottolenghi S, Brizzolari A, Maioli C, Samaja M, Paroni R.

Freeskiing is performed in an extreme environment, with significant physical effort that can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and dehydration. This study aimed to investigate the evolution of the oxy-inflammation and hydration status during a freeskiing training season with non-invasive methods.

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