Publications

Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2019 Jul 11
Static Metabolic Bubbles as Precursors of Vascular Gas Emboli During Divers' Decompression: A Hypothesis Explaining Bubbling Variability
Imbert JP, Egi SM, Germonpre P & Balestra C

Introduction: The risk for decompression sickness (DCS) after hyperbaric exposures (such as SCUBA diving) has been linked to the presence and quantity of vascular gas emboli (VGE) after surfacing from the dive. These VGE can be semi-quantified by ultrasound Doppler and quantified via precordial echocardiography. However, for an identical dive, VGE monitoring of divers shows variations related to individual susceptibility, and, for a same diver, dive-to-dive variations which may be influenced by pre-dive pre-conditioning. These variations are not explained by currently used algorithms. In this paper, we present a new hypothesis: individual metabolic processes, through the oxygen window (OW) or Inherent Unsaturation of tissues, modulate the presence and volume of static metabolic bubbles (SMB) that in turn act as precursors of circulating VGE after a dive.

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2019 May 1
Clustering of recreational divers by their health conditions in a database of a citizen science project
Ozyigit T, Yavuz C, Egi SM, Pieri M, Balestra C & Marroni A.

Divers Alert Network Europe has created a database with a large amount of dive-related data that has been collected since 1993 within the scope of the Diving Safety Laboratory citizen science project. The main objectives of this study are the grouping divers by their health information and revealing significant differences in diving parameters using data mining techniques. Due to the methodology of the project, data cleaning was performed before applying clustering methods in order to eliminate potential mistakes resulting from inaccuracies and missing information. Despite the fact that 63% of the data were lost during the cleaning phase, the remaining 1,169 "clean" diver data enabled meaningful clustering using the "two-step" method. Experienced male divers without any health problems are in Cluster 1.

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2019 Feb 21
Altered Venous Blood Nitric Oxide Levels at Depth and Related Bubble Formation During Scuba Diving
Cialoni D., Brizzolari A., Samaja M., Pieri M. and Marroni A.

Introduction: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of diving, and the related endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress roles have been extensively investigated. However, most available data have been obtained before and after the dive, whilst, as far as we know, no data is available about what happens during the water immersion phase of dive. The scope of this study is to investigate the Nitrate and Nitrite (NOX) concentration and the total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) before, during and after a single SCUBA dive in healthy scuba diving volunteers, as well as to look for evidence of a possible relationship with venous gas bubble formation. Materials and Methods: Plasma, obtained from blood of 15 expert SCUBA divers, 13 male and 2 female, was investigated for differences in NOX and TAC values in different dive times. Differences in NOX and TAC values in subjects previously known as "bubble resistant" (non-bubblers - NB) and "bubble prone" (Bubblers - B) were investigated.

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2019 Jan 11
Commercial Divers’ Subjective Evaluation of Saturation
Imbert Jean Pierre, Balestra Costantino, Kiboub Fatima Zohra, Loennechen Øyvind, Eftedal Ingrid

Commercial saturation diving involves divers living and working in an enclosed atmosphere with elevated partial pressure of oxygen (ppO2) for weeks. The divers must acclimatize to these conditions during compression, and for up to 28 days until decompression is completed. During decompression, the ppO2 and ambient pressure are gradually decreased; then the divers must acclimatize again to breathing normal air in atmospheric pressure when they arrive at surface. We investigated 51 saturation divers’ subjective evaluation of the saturation and post-decompression phase via questionnaires and individual interviews.

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2018 Dec 4
An innovative WebRTC solution for e-Health services
Pierleoni P., Pernini L., Palma L., Belli A., Valenti S., Maurizi L., Sabbatini L. and Marroni A.

Solutions and services for e-Health and telemedicine are constantly spreading and becoming increasingly important in the health area thanks to last innovations in electronics, informatics and telecommunications. This work proposes an innovative service for the e-Health oriented to the maximum ease of use and to the sharing of vital signs. The proposal consists in a tele-counseling service based on the WebRTC technology that allows any person residing remotely from medical staff or hospital to directly interact with them.

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