Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2018 Mar 27
Cellular Glucose Uptake During Breath-Hold Diving in Experienced Male Breath-Hold Divers
Sponsiello N., Cialoni D., Pieri M., Marroni A.

Background: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport. Methods: Twenty male experienced healthy breath-hold divers were studied. Anthropometric information was obtained. Glycemia, insulinemia, and catecholamine response were investigated before and after the series of BH-diving. Results

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2018 Mar 27
Echocardiography is able to detect morphological and functional changes of the right heart in sport Scuba Divers
Pudil R, Horakova L, Rozloznik M & Balestra C.

Introduction: Scuba diving represents stressful event for cardiovascular system. Breathing with compressed air, hyperbaric environment and microbubbles formation are the main factors are the most influencing factors for pulmonary circulation. Hypothesis: The aim of the study was to evaluate the change in morphology and function of the right heart after scuba dive with compressed air.

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2018 Mar 23
Safety Priorities and Underestimations in Recreational Scuba Diving Operations: A European Study Supporting the Implementation of New Risk Management Programmes
Lucrezi S., Egi S. M., Pieri M., Burman F., Ozyigit T., Cialoni D., Thomas G., Marroni A., Saayman M.

Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers’ and dive centres’ perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry.

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2018 Jan 1
Design and Implementation of an Underwater Telemetric Glucose Monitoring System for Scuba Divers
Egi S. M., Altepe C., Pieri M., Ruzgar Sinoplu D., Cialoni D., Özyiğit T., Pierleoni P., Marroni A.

Despite the abundance of telemetric applications for ecology, behavior and physiology of marine life, few efforts were reported about the use of acoustic telemetry for SCUBA divers. Such systems are required to study the medical conditions of some type of divers such as diabetic ones. This study communicates the details of a study to design, manufacture and test a prototype system that measures the blood glucose while diving and transmit the results in real time to the surface. The system design consists of a subcutaneous sensor to measure interstitial glycaemia, a microcontroller based RF receiver board in a custom built waterproof casing, a pair of acoustic modems to transmit data underwater and a computer on the surface to log the received data.

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2017 Dec 7
A Software Tool for the Annotation of Embolic Events in Echo Doppler Audio Signals
Pierleoni P., Maurizi L., Palma L., Belli A., Valenti S., and Marroni A.

The use of precordial Doppler monitoring to prevent decompression sickness (DS) is well known by the scientific community as an important instrument for early diagnosis of DS. However, the timely and correct diagnosis of DS without assistance from diving medical specialists is unreliable. Thus, a common protocol for the manual annotation of echo Doppler signals and a tool for their automated recording and annotation are necessary. We have implemented original software for efficient bubble appearance annotation and proposed a unified annotation protocol. The tool auto-sets the response time of human “bubble examiners,” performs playback of the Doppler file by rendering it independent of the specific audio player, and enables the annotation of individual bubbles or multiple bubbles known as “showers.” The tool provides a report with an optimized data structure and estimates the embolic risk level according to the Extended Spencer Scale. The tool is built in accordance with ISO/IEC 9126 on software quality and has been projected and tested with assistance from the Divers Alert Network (DAN) Europe Foundation, which employs this tool for its diving data acquisition campaigns.

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