Publications

Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2021 Jun 30
Prolonged syncope with multifactorial pulmonary oedema related to dry apnoea training: Safety concerns in unsupervised dry static apnoea
Valdivia-Valdivia JM, Raisanen-Sokolowski A & Lindholm P.

Many competitive breath-hold divers use dry apnoea routines to improve their tolerance to hypoxia and hypercapnia, varying the amount of prior hyperventilation and lung volume. When hyperventilating and exhaling to residual volume prior to starting a breath-hold, hypoxia is reached quickly and without too much discomfort from respiratory drive. Cerebral hypoxia with loss of consciousness (LOC) can easily result. Here, we report on a case where an unsupervised diver used a nose clip that is thought to have interfered with his resumption of breathing after LOC. Consequently, he suffered an extended period of severe hypoxia, with poor ventilation and recovery.

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2021 Jun 30
Sinus barotrauma in diving
Lindfors OH, Raisanen-Sokolowski AK, Suvilehto J & Sinkkonen ST.

Introduction: Sinus barotrauma is a common occurrence in diving and subaquatic medicine, potentially compromising dive safety. To gain a more thorough understanding of the condition, an in-depth investigation is justified. Methods: This was a survey study. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire was distributed to 7,060 recipients: professional divers of the Finnish Border Guard, the Finnish Rescue Services, and the Finnish Heritage agency, as well as recreational divers registered as members of the Finnish Divers' Association reachable by email (roughly two-thirds of all members and recreational divers in Finland). Primary outcomes were self-reported prevalence, clinical characteristics, and health effects of sinus barotrauma while diving. Secondary outcomes were adjusted odds ratios (OR) for frequency of sinus barotrauma with respect to possible risk factors.

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2021 May 13
Impaired Attentional Processing During Parabolic Flight
Friedl-Werner A, Machado M-L, Balestra C, Liegard Y, Philoxene B, Brauns K, Stahn AC, Hitier M, Besnard S.

Previous studies suggest that altered gravity levels during parabolic flight maneuvers affect spatial updating. Little is known about the impact of the experimental setting and psychological stressors associated with parabolic flight experiments on attentional processes. To address this gap, we investigated the level of alertness, selective and sustained attention in 1 and 0 g using a Go/No-Go Continuous Performance Task. We also identified several parameters associated with the experimental set-up of a parabolic flight that could be expected to affect attentional processing.

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2021 Apr 7
Diving Responses in Experienced Rebreather Divers: Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Cold Water Diving
Lundell RV, Tuominen L, Ojanen T, Parkkola K & Raisanen-Sokolowski A.

Introduction: Technical diving is very popular in Finland throughout the year despite diving conditions being challenging, especially due to arctic water and poor visibility. Cold water, immersion, submersion, hyperoxia, as well as psychological and physiological stress, all have an effect on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Materials and methods: To evaluate divers' ANS responses, short-term (5 min) heart rate variability (HRV) during dives in 2-4°C water was measured. HRV resting values were evaluated from separate measurements before and after the dives. Twenty-six experienced closed circuit rebreather (CCR) divers performed an identical 45-meter decompression dive with a non-physical task requiring concentration at the bottom depth.

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2021 Mar 31
Middle ear barotrauma in diving
Lindfors OH, Raisanen-Sokolowski AK, Suvilehto J & Sinkkonen ST.

Introduction: Middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) is the most common medical complication in diving, posing a serious risk to dive safety. Given this prevalence and the continuing growth of the diving industry, a comprehensive overview of the condition is warranted. Methods: This was a survey study. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire was distributed to 7,060 recipients: professional divers of the Finnish Border Guard, the Finnish Rescue Services, and the Finnish Heritage agency; and recreational divers registered as members of the Finnish Divers' Association reachable by e-mail (roughly two-thirds of all members and recreational divers in Finland). Primary outcomes were self-reported prevalence, clinical characteristics, and health effects of MEBt while diving. Secondary outcomes were adjusted odds ratios (OR) for frequency of MEBt with respect to possible risk factors.

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