Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2018 Mar 27
Cellular Glucose Uptake During Breath-Hold Diving in Experienced Male Breath-Hold Divers
Sponsiello N., Cialoni D., Pieri M., Marroni A.

Background: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport. Methods: Twenty male experienced healthy breath-hold divers were studied. Anthropometric information was obtained. Glycemia, insulinemia, and catecholamine response were investigated before and after the series of BH-diving. Results

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2019 May 1
Clustering of recreational divers by their health conditions in a database of a citizen science project
Ozyigit T, Yavuz C, Egi SM, Pieri M, Balestra C & Marroni A.

Divers Alert Network Europe has created a database with a large amount of dive-related data that has been collected since 1993 within the scope of the Diving Safety Laboratory citizen science project. The main objectives of this study are the grouping divers by their health information and revealing significant differences in diving parameters using data mining techniques. Due to the methodology of the project, data cleaning was performed before applying clustering methods in order to eliminate potential mistakes resulting from inaccuracies and missing information. Despite the fact that 63% of the data were lost during the cleaning phase, the remaining 1,169 "clean" diver data enabled meaningful clustering using the "two-step" method. Experienced male divers without any health problems are in Cluster 1.

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2019 Jan 11
Commercial Divers’ Subjective Evaluation of Saturation
Imbert Jean Pierre, Balestra Costantino, Kiboub Fatima Zohra, Loennechen Øyvind, Eftedal Ingrid

Commercial saturation diving involves divers living and working in an enclosed atmosphere with elevated partial pressure of oxygen (ppO2) for weeks. The divers must acclimatize to these conditions during compression, and for up to 28 days until decompression is completed. During decompression, the ppO2 and ambient pressure are gradually decreased; then the divers must acclimatize again to breathing normal air in atmospheric pressure when they arrive at surface. We investigated 51 saturation divers’ subjective evaluation of the saturation and post-decompression phase via questionnaires and individual interviews.

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1996 Jan 1
Cost Benefit and Cost-Efficiency Evaluation of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Marroni A, Oriani G, Wattel F.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, apart from some acute and very specialized indications regarding the treatment of decompression disorders and arterial air/gas embolism, is generally aimed at treating serious and complex disorders, generally reluctant to standard treatment and requires prolonged and reiterated hospitalization/rehabilitation periods as well as elevated technical, social and human costs.

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2018 Nov 1
Inert gas narcosis in scuba diving, different gases different reactions
Rocco M, Pelaia P, Di Benedetto P, Conte G, Maggi L, Fiorelli S, Mercieri M, Balestra C, De Blasi RA & Investigators RP

Purpose: Underwater divers face several potential neurological hazards when breathing compressed gas mixtures including nitrogen narcosis which can impact diver’s safety. Various human studies have clearly demonstrated brain impairment due to nitrogen narcosis in divers at 4 ATA using critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF) as a cortical performance indicator. However, recently some authors have proposed a probable adaptive phenomenon during repetitive exposure to high nitrogen pressure in rats, where they found a reversal effect on dopamine release. Methods: Sixty experienced divers breathing Air, Trimix or Heliox, were studied during an open water dive to a depth of 6 ATA with a square profile testing CFFF measurement before (T0), during the dive upon arriving at the bottom (6 ATA) (T1), 20 min of bottom time (T2), and at 5 m (1.5 ATA) (T3).

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