Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2021 May 13
Impaired Attentional Processing During Parabolic Flight
Friedl-Werner A, Machado M-L, Balestra C, Liegard Y, Philoxene B, Brauns K, Stahn AC, Hitier M, Besnard S.

Previous studies suggest that altered gravity levels during parabolic flight maneuvers affect spatial updating. Little is known about the impact of the experimental setting and psychological stressors associated with parabolic flight experiments on attentional processes. To address this gap, we investigated the level of alertness, selective and sustained attention in 1 and 0 g using a Go/No-Go Continuous Performance Task. We also identified several parameters associated with the experimental set-up of a parabolic flight that could be expected to affect attentional processing.

Read more

2021 Apr 7
Diving Responses in Experienced Rebreather Divers: Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Cold Water Diving
Lundell RV, Tuominen L, Ojanen T, Parkkola K & Raisanen-Sokolowski A.

Introduction: Technical diving is very popular in Finland throughout the year despite diving conditions being challenging, especially due to arctic water and poor visibility. Cold water, immersion, submersion, hyperoxia, as well as psychological and physiological stress, all have an effect on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Materials and methods: To evaluate divers' ANS responses, short-term (5 min) heart rate variability (HRV) during dives in 2-4°C water was measured. HRV resting values were evaluated from separate measurements before and after the dives. Twenty-six experienced closed circuit rebreather (CCR) divers performed an identical 45-meter decompression dive with a non-physical task requiring concentration at the bottom depth.

Read more

2021 Mar 31
Middle ear barotrauma in diving
Lindfors OH, Raisanen-Sokolowski AK, Suvilehto J & Sinkkonen ST.

Introduction: Middle ear barotrauma (MEBt) is the most common medical complication in diving, posing a serious risk to dive safety. Given this prevalence and the continuing growth of the diving industry, a comprehensive overview of the condition is warranted. Methods: This was a survey study. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire was distributed to 7,060 recipients: professional divers of the Finnish Border Guard, the Finnish Rescue Services, and the Finnish Heritage agency; and recreational divers registered as members of the Finnish Divers' Association reachable by e-mail (roughly two-thirds of all members and recreational divers in Finland). Primary outcomes were self-reported prevalence, clinical characteristics, and health effects of MEBt while diving. Secondary outcomes were adjusted odds ratios (OR) for frequency of MEBt with respect to possible risk factors.

Read more

2021 Jan 7
Nitric oxide andoxidative stress changes at depth in breath-hold diving
Danilo Cialoni, Andrea Brizzolari, Michele Samaja, Gerardo Bosco, Matteo Paganini, Massimo Pieri, Valentina Lancellotti, Alessandro Marroni

Background: Several mechanisms allow humans to resist the extreme conditions encountered during breath-hold diving. Available nitric oxide (NO) is one of the major contributors to such complex adaptations at depth and oxidative stress is one of the major collateral effects of diving. Due to technical difficulties, these biomarkers have not so far been studied in vivo while at depth. The aim of this study is to investigate nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentration, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) before, during, and after repetitive breath-hold dives in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Blood plasma, obtained from 14 expert breath-hold divers, was tested for differences in NOx, TAC, and TBARS between pre-dive, bottom, surface, 30 and 60 min post-dive samples.

Read more

2021 Jan 1
A fully automated method for late ventricular diastole frame selection in post-dive echocardiography without ECG gating
Markley E, Le DQ, Germonpre P, Balestra C, Tillmans F, Denoble P, Freiberger JJ, Moon RE, Dayton PA, Papadopoulou V.

Venous gas emboli (VGE) are often quantified as a marker of decompression stress on echocardiograms. Bubble-counting has been proposed as an easy to learn method, but remains time-consuming, rendering large dataset analysis impractical. Computer automation of VGE counting following this method has therefore been suggested as a means to eliminate rater bias and save time. A necessary step for this automation relies on the selection of a frame during late ventricular diastole (LVD) for each cardiac cycle of the recording. Since electrocardiograms (ECG) are not always recorded in field experiments, here we propose a fully automated method for LVD frame selection based on regional intensity minimization.

Read more