In our previous research, a deep 5-min stop at 15 msw (50 fsw), in addition to the typical 3-5 min shallow stop, significantly reduced precordial Doppler detectable bubbles (PDDB) and "fast" tissue compartment gas tensions during decompression from a 25 msw (82 fsw) dive; the optimal ascent rate was 10 msw (30 fsw/min). Since publication of these results, several recreational diving agencies have recommended empirical stop times shorter than the 5 min stops that we used, stops of as little as 1 min (deep) and 2 min (shallow). In our present study, we clarified the optimal time for stops by measuring PDDB with several combinations of deep and shallow stop times following single and repetitive open-water dives to 25 msw (82 fsw) for 25 mins and 20 minutes respectively; ascent rate was 10 msw/min (33 fsw). Among 15 profiles, stop time ranged from 1 to 10 min for both the deep stops (15 msw/50 fsw) and the shallow stops (6 msw/20 fsw). Dives with 2 1/2 min deep stops yielded the lowest PDDB scores--shorter or longer deep stops were less effective in reducing PDDB. The results confirm that a deep stop of 1 min is too short--it produced the highest PDDB scores of all the dives. We also evaluated shallow stop times of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 min while keeping a fixed time of 2.5 min for the deep stop; increased times up to 10 min at the shallow stop did not further reduce PDDB. While our findings cannot be extrapolated beyond these dive profiles without further study, we recommend a deep stop of at least 2 1/2 mins at 15 msw (50 fsw) in addition to the customary 6 msw (20 fsw) for 3-5 mins for 25 meter dives of 20 to 25 minutes to reduce PDDB.Čtěte více
To verify whether, with thorough practical and theoretical training, well-controlled, non-complicated diabetic patients can safely go diving underwater with no additional medical or metabolic risks. METHODS: Twelve diabetic patients participated in the study after undergoing training focused on their diabetic status. Two dives per day were scheduled during two five-day stays on the island of Ventotene (Italy). Capillary blood glucose (BG) was checked at 60, 30 and 10 minutes before diving, and corrective measures adopted if necessary, based on BG absolute levels and dynamics. A device for continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM), expressly modified for the purpose, was worn during dives.Čtěte více
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether prehydration 90 min before a dive could decrease bubble formation, and to evaluate the consequent adjustments in plasma volume (PV), water balance and plasma surface tension (ST).Čtěte více
INTRODUCTION: The preconditioning of divers to reduce post-dive decompression sickness (DCS) has gained increased interest in diving medical research over the last few years. The beneficial effects of physical exercise, oxygen breathing, hyperbaric exposure, heat exposure, hyperhydration, or nitroglycerin administration before the dive are only a few examples of ongoing research. In this work, we investigated the effects of pre-dive whole-body vibration on post-dive bubble formation.Čtěte více
INTRODUCTION: Many divers report less fatigue following dives breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) compared with breathing air. A reduction of post-dive fatigue with EANx would suggest a pathological origin, possibly the presence of asymptomatic nitrogen bubbles in the body after a dive.Čtěte více
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