The prevalence of a Patent Foramen Ovale is described in merely 30% of the asymptomatic population. This patency has been shown to be an increasing risk factor for paradoxical cerebral embolization. Some desaturation or decompression situations in human activities such as scuba diving or altitude flight are prone to provoke embolisations.Lees verder
The axillary arch (AA) is a muscular anatomical variation in the fossa axillaris that has been extensively studied in cadaveric specimens. Within these dissections, different innervations of the AA have been proposed, but this has never been explored in vivo. Knowledge of the innervation of the AA is required in order to better understand its function (e.g. predisposition for certain sports and/or activities, understanding shoulder injuries in overhead sports). Here, we report on the use of surface stimulodetection electromyography (SSEMG) to resolve the innervation of the AA in 20 subjects (12 women, eight men - mean age of 21.3 ± 2.7 years) with a uni- or bilateral AA. SSEMG of each muscle [M. latissimus dorsi (MLD) and M. pectoralis major] was performed with a four-channel electrostimulation measuring system in order to determine the innervation of the AA. The results showed co-contraction of the MLD in 85% of the subjects after AA stimulation. In the remaining subjects, no specific localized response was observed due to non-specific nerve stimulation, inherent to the proximity of the brachial plexus in these individuals. Our findings demonstrate that SSEMG exploration offers a practical and reliable tool for investigating anatomical aspects of muscle innervation in vivo. Using this approach, we conclude that the AA receives the same innervation as the MLD (the N. thoracodorsalis), and may be considered a muscular extension of the latter.Lees verder
The sites for formation of microbubbles that are routinely detected precordially by Doppler after a decompression are still a matter of debate. Firstly, microbubbles could form on the endothelial wall of capillaries, at specific nanometric sites, but the release mechanism of such small emerging entities remains puzzling.Lees verder
There is a limited understanding of the normal function of the pterygoïdeus proprius muscle and the role that this muscle may have in temporomandibular disorders. Despite a well-described anatomical in-vitro approach to this muscle, there are still difficulties in investigating the fossa pterygopalatina. This study reveals an alternative in-vivo approach by magnetic resonance imaging to visualise the muscle in the fossa pterygopalatina on 78 head halves, describe the connections with the musculus temporalis and pterygoïdeus lateralis as well as report the incidence without dealing with the known inconveniences of the dissection approach. The results show an incidence of 12.82% for the musculus pterygoïdeus proprius equally divided between both genders. Two different types of bridging between the musculus temporalis and musculus pterygoïdeus lateralis were also found: (i) 'O' shape (6.41%) and (ii) 'Y' shape (6.41%). This study suggests the use of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the different connections between vascular and muscular structures in the fossa pterygopalatina. Further research with this approach to link the appearance of the muscle with neurovascular entrapment syndromes is warranted.Lees verder
Hypoxia, even at non-lethal levels, is one of the most stressful events for all aerobic organisms as it significantly affects a wide spectrum of physiological functions and energy production. Aerobic organisms activate countless molecular responses directed to respond at cellular, tissue, organ, and whole-body levels to cope with oxygen shortage allowing survival, including enhanced neo-angiogenesis and systemic oxygen delivery.Lees verder
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