Renal (peritubular) tissue hypoxia is a well-known physiological trigger for erythropoietin (EPO) production. We investigated the effect of rebound relative hypoxia after hyperoxia obtained under normo- and hyperbaric oxygen breathing conditions. A group of 16 healthy volunteers were investigated before and after a period of breathing 100% normobaric oxygen for 2 h and a period of breathing 100% oxygen at 2.5 ATA for 90 min (hyperbaric oxygen). Serum EPO concentration was measured using a radioimmunoassay at various time points during 24-36 h. A 60% increase (P < 0.001) in serum EPO was observed 36 h after normobaric oxygen. In contrast, a 53% decrease in serum EPO was observed at 24 h after hyperbaric oxygen. Those changes were not related to the circadian rhythm of serum EPO of the subjects. These results indicate that a sudden and sustained decrease in tissue oxygen tension, even above hypoxia thresholds (e.g., after a period of normobaric oxygen breathing), may act as a trigger for EPO serum level. This EPO trigger, the "normobaric oxygen paradox," does not appear to be present after hyperbaric oxygen breathing.Scopri di più
Introduction: Sinus barotrauma is a common occurrence in diving and subaquatic medicine, potentially compromising dive safety. To gain a more thorough understanding of the condition, an in-depth investigation is justified. Methods: This was a survey study. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire was distributed to 7,060 recipients: professional divers of the Finnish Border Guard, the Finnish Rescue Services, and the Finnish Heritage agency, as well as recreational divers registered as members of the Finnish Divers' Association reachable by email (roughly two-thirds of all members and recreational divers in Finland). Primary outcomes were self-reported prevalence, clinical characteristics, and health effects of sinus barotrauma while diving. Secondary outcomes were adjusted odds ratios (OR) for frequency of sinus barotrauma with respect to possible risk factors.Scopri di più
Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and use of enriched air can result in oxidative injury affecting the brain, lungs and eyes. HBO₂ exposure during diving can lead to a decrease in respiratory parameters. However, the possible effects of acute exposure to oxygen-enriched diving on subsequent spirometric performance and oxidative state in humans have not been recently described recently. We aim to investigate possible effects of acute (i) hyperbaric and (ii) hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure using scuba or closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) on subsequent spirometry and to assess the role of oxidative state after hyperoxic diving.Scopri di più
Introduction: The risk for decompression sickness (DCS) after hyperbaric exposures (such as SCUBA diving) has been linked to the presence and quantity of vascular gas emboli (VGE) after surfacing from the dive. These VGE can be semi-quantified by ultrasound Doppler and quantified via precordial echocardiography. However, for an identical dive, VGE monitoring of divers shows variations related to individual susceptibility, and, for a same diver, dive-to-dive variations which may be influenced by pre-dive pre-conditioning. These variations are not explained by currently used algorithms. In this paper, we present a new hypothesis: individual metabolic processes, through the oxygen window (OW) or Inherent Unsaturation of tissues, modulate the presence and volume of static metabolic bubbles (SMB) that in turn act as precursors of circulating VGE after a dive.Scopri di più
The tenth European Consensus Conference on Hyperbaric Medicine took place in Lille, France, 14-16 April, 2016, attended by a large delegation of experts from Europe and elsewhere. The focus of the meeting was the revision of the European Committee on Hyperbaric Medicine (ECHM) list of accepted indications for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), based on a thorough review of the best available research and evidence-based medicine (EBM). For this scope, the modified GRADE system for evidence analysis, together with the DELPHI system for consensus evaluation, were adopted.Scopri di più
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