Publicaciones
Publicaciones científicas seleccionadas, sobre medicina y fisiología del buceo
2015 mar 15
Relationships between plasma lipids, proteins, surface tension and post-dive bubbles
Schellart NA, Rozložník M, Balestra C.

Decompression sickness (DCS) in divers is caused by bubbles of inert gas. When DCS occurs, most bubbles can be found in the venous circulation: venous gas emboli (VGE). Bubbles are thought to be stabilized by low molecular weight surfactant reducing the plasma-air surface tension (γ)...

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2011 mar 2
Respiratory rate can be modulated by long-loop muscular reflexes, a possible factor in involuntary cessation of apnea
Balestra C, Levenez M, Lafère P, Dachy B, Ezquer M, Germonpré P.

INTRODUCTION: The main limiting factors determining apnea time are generally considered to be related to blood and cerebrospinal fluid chemistry. Several physiological (adaptive) mechanisms and some psychologic parameters, such as motivation, are also known to increase apnea time. AIM:We wished to study the link between peripheral muscle fatigue, the concomitant alteration of long latency (transcortical) reflexes and respiratory control. METHODS: Fatigue was induced in a small hand muscle (abductor pollicis brevis) (n = 11). This muscle is sufficiently small that its fatigue and the resulting production of metabolites are unlikely to alter whole-blood biochemistry. The Hoffmann reflex, an involuntary reaction to electrical stimulation of muscle afferent sensory fibreswas studied, as was the long latency reflex (LLR) using the Dueschl method in which electrical stimulation is superimposed on a slight voluntary contraction, Different fatiguing protocols were performed, and respiratory rate continuously recorded.

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2016 oct 24
Response: Commentary: Correlation between Patent Foramen Ovale, Cerebral “Lesions” and Neuropsychometric Testing in Experienced Sports Divers: Does Diving Damage the Brain?
Balestra C., Germonpré P.

Nutritional antioxidants have been proposed as an expedient strategy to counter the potentially deleterious effects of scuba diving on endothelial function, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and heart function. Sixteen volunteers performing a single standard dive (20 min at 33 m) according to US Navy diving procedures were randomly assigned to two groups: one was administered with two doses of 200 mg of an anthocyanins (AC)-rich extract from red oranges, 12 and 4 h before diving. Anthocyanins supplementation significantly modulated the effects of diving on haematocrit, body water distribution and FMD.

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Risk of decompression illness among 230 divers in relation to the presence and size of patent foramen ovale
Germonpre P, Balestra C.

BACKGROUND: The risk of developing decompression illness (DCI) in divers with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has not been directly determined so far; neither has it been assessed in relation to the PFO's size. METHODS :In 230 scuba divers (age 39+/-8 years), contrast trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed for the detection and size grading (0-3) of PFO. Prior to TEE, the study individuals answered a detailed questionnaire about their health status and about their diving habits and accidents. For inclusion into the study, > or =200 dives and strict adherence to decompression tables were required. RESULTS: Sixty-three divers (27%) had a PFO. Overall, the absolute risk of suffering a DCI event was 2.5 per 10(4) dives. There were 18 divers (29%) with, and 10 divers (6%) without, PFO who had experienced > or =1 major DCI events P=0.016. In the group with PFO, the incidence per 10(4) dives of a major DCI, a DCI lasting longer than 24 h and of being treated in a decompression chamber amounted to 5.1 (median 0, interquartile range [IQR] 0-10.0), 1.9 (median 0, IQR 0-4.0) and 3.6 (median 0, IQR 0-9.8), respectively and was 4.8-12.9-fold higher than in the group without PFO (P<0.001). The risk of suffering a major DCI, of a DCI lasting longer than 24 h and of being treated by recompression increased with rising PFO size. CONCLUSION: The presence of a PFO is related to a low absolute risk of suffering five major DCI events per 10(4) dives, the odds of which is five times as high as in divers without PFO. The risk of suffering a major DCI parallels PFO size.

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2009 abr 5
Safety of recreational scuba diving in type 1 diabetic patients: the Deep Monitoring programme
Bonomo M1, Cairoli R, Verde G, Morelli L, Moreo A, Grottaglie MD, Brambilla MC, Meneghini E, Aghemo P, Corigliano G, Marroni A.

To verify whether, with thorough practical and theoretical training, well-controlled, non-complicated diabetic patients can safely go diving underwater with no additional medical or metabolic risks. METHODS: Twelve diabetic patients participated in the study after undergoing training focused on their diabetic status. Two dives per day were scheduled during two five-day stays on the island of Ventotene (Italy). Capillary blood glucose (BG) was checked at 60, 30 and 10 minutes before diving, and corrective measures adopted if necessary, based on BG absolute levels and dynamics. A device for continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM), expressly modified for the purpose, was worn during dives.

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