BACKGROUND: The risk of developing decompression illness (DCI) in divers with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has not been directly determined so far; neither has it been assessed in relation to the PFO's size. METHODS :In 230 scuba divers (age 39+/-8 years), contrast trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed for the detection and size grading (0-3) of PFO. Prior to TEE, the study individuals answered a detailed questionnaire about their health status and about their diving habits and accidents. For inclusion into the study, > or =200 dives and strict adherence to decompression tables were required. RESULTS: Sixty-three divers (27%) had a PFO. Overall, the absolute risk of suffering a DCI event was 2.5 per 10(4) dives. There were 18 divers (29%) with, and 10 divers (6%) without, PFO who had experienced > or =1 major DCI events P=0.016. In the group with PFO, the incidence per 10(4) dives of a major DCI, a DCI lasting longer than 24 h and of being treated in a decompression chamber amounted to 5.1 (median 0, interquartile range [IQR] 0-10.0), 1.9 (median 0, IQR 0-4.0) and 3.6 (median 0, IQR 0-9.8), respectively and was 4.8-12.9-fold higher than in the group without PFO (P<0.001). The risk of suffering a major DCI, of a DCI lasting longer than 24 h and of being treated by recompression increased with rising PFO size. CONCLUSION: The presence of a PFO is related to a low absolute risk of suffering five major DCI events per 10(4) dives, the odds of which is five times as high as in divers without PFO. The risk of suffering a major DCI parallels PFO size.Lee más
To verify whether, with thorough practical and theoretical training, well-controlled, non-complicated diabetic patients can safely go diving underwater with no additional medical or metabolic risks. METHODS: Twelve diabetic patients participated in the study after undergoing training focused on their diabetic status. Two dives per day were scheduled during two five-day stays on the island of Ventotene (Italy). Capillary blood glucose (BG) was checked at 60, 30 and 10 minutes before diving, and corrective measures adopted if necessary, based on BG absolute levels and dynamics. A device for continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM), expressly modified for the purpose, was worn during dives.Lee más
Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers’ and dive centres’ perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry.Lee más
In ordinary recreational scuba diving, many anatomical parts can be involved in disorders of cranial regions: ears and eyes are involved but also sinuses. Dental problems are generally involved in barotraumas because of bad dental fillings or other matters of interest to the general dental practitioner.Lee más
Background: Breath-hold diving (BH-diving) is associated to extreme environmental conditions, prolonged physical activity, and complex adaptation mechanisms to supply enough O2 to vital organs. Consequently, one of the biggest effects could be an increased exercise-induced muscle fatigue, in both skeletal and cardiac muscles that can induce an increase of muscles injury markers including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) when concerning the skeletal muscle, cardiac creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MBm) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) when concerning the cardiac muscle, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as index of muscle stress. The aim of this study is to investigate serum cardiac and skeletal muscle markers before and after a BH-diving training session. Results: We found statistically significant increases of CK (T0: 136.1% p < 0.0001; T1: 138.5%, p < 0.0001), CK-MBm (T0: 145.1%, p < 0.0001; T1: 153.2%, p < 0.0001) LDH (T0: 110.4%, p < 0.0003; T1: 110.1%, p < 0.0013) in both T0 and T1 blood samples, as compared to basal value. AST showed a statistically significant increase only at T0 (106.8%, p < 0.0007) while ALT did not exhibit statistically significant changes. We did not find any changes in cTnI levels between pre-dive and post-dive samples.Lee más
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