Divers’ health state after underwater activity can be assessed after the immersion using precordial echo Doppler examination. An audio analysis of the acquired signals is performed by specialist doctors to detect circulating gas bubbles in the vascular system and to evaluate the decompression sickness risk. Since on-site medical assistance cannot always be guaranteed, we propose a system for automatic emboli detection using a custom portable device connected to the echo Doppler instrument. The empirical mode decomposition method is used to develop a real-time algorithm able to automatically detect embolic events and, consequently, assess the decompression sickness risk according to the Spencer’s scale. The proposed algorithm has been tested according to an experimental protocol approved by the Divers Alert Network. It involved 30 volunteer divers and produced 37 echo Doppler files useful for the algorithm’s performances evaluation. The results obtained by the proposed emboli detection algorithm (83% sensitivity and 76% specificity) make the system particularly suitable for real-time evaluation of the decompression sickness risk level. Furthermore, the system could also be used in continuous monitoring of hospitalized patients with embolic risks such as post surgery ones.Lee más
Solutions and services for e-Health and telemedicine are constantly spreading and becoming increasingly important in the health area thanks to last innovations in electronics, informatics and telecommunications. This work proposes an innovative service for the e-Health oriented to the maximum ease of use and to the sharing of vital signs. The proposal consists in a tele-counseling service based on the WebRTC technology that allows any person residing remotely from medical staff or hospital to directly interact with them.Lee más
Decompression Illness (DCI), Decompression Sickness (DCS), Dysbaric Illness (DI), disorder, syndrome are terms associated with the clinical signs or symptoms originally generated by a reduction of absolute pressure surrounding the patient. For 100 years the definition of the “disease” is a matter of “disputes” or “consensi”. We understand nowadays that it is not enough to know how to cure evident clinical manifestations, but also to reduce or virtually eliminate the primary physical cause for the physiological damages: the gas separation phase from saturated tissues – stationary or circulating bubbles.Lee más
ecreational divers are introducing "deep stops" at half the depth (HD-DS) to reduce the risk of spinal DCS with only Doppler evidence to support it. Therefore this research was designed to show the effect of an HD-DS on spinal DCS manifestations by evaluating whether: (1) air diving-induced spinal DCS could be produced in awake, freely moving rats at 3.5-6.0 atm abs (350-600 kPa); and (2) whether the introduction of an HD-DS reduced spinal DCS in such a model. Fifty-one female, Wistar rats (221 to 450 g) underwent one-hour compression at 350 to 600 kPa with seven minutes of decompression with/without a five-minute DS (HD-DS / No-DS). Animals were observed for three hours. Outcomes were classified as: (1) asymptomatic; (2) breathing difficulties; (3) paralysis/weakness; (4) immobility; or (5) death. Eight animals, exposed to 385 kPa air breathing for 60 minutes followed by a three-staged decompression of 7.5 minutes, remained asymptomatic. The profile is known to produce spinal DCS in anesthetized rats. Eleven animals were then used to determine the threshold for DCS: 500 kPa. A total of 14 animals were compressed to 550 kPa (Group 1). Group 1-A (n = 8) No-DS; Group 1-B (n = 6) HD-DS; 18 were compressed to 600 kPa (Group 2). Group 2-A (n = 8) No-DS; Group 2-B (n = 10) HD-DS.Lee más
SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation.Lee más
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