Selected scientific publications on diving medicine and physiology.

2022 Ara 30
Oxidative Stress Response's Kinetics after 60 Minutes at Different (30% or 100%) Normobaric Hyperoxia Exposures
Leveque C, Mrakic-Sposta S, Lafere P, Vezzoli A, Germonpre P, Beer A, Mievis S, Virgili F, Lambrechts K, Theunissen S, Guerrero F & Balestra C.

Oxygen is a powerful trigger for cellular reactions and is used in many pathologies, including oxidative stress. However, the effects of oxygen over time and at different partial pressures remain poorly understood. In this study, the metabolic responses of normobaric oxygen intake for 1 h to mild (30%) and high (100%) inspired fractions were investigated. Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects (7 males and 7 females; age: 29.9 ± 11.1 years, height: 168.2 ± 9.37 cm; weight: 64.4 ± 12.3 kg; BMI: 22.7 ± 4.1) were randomly assigned in the two groups. Blood samples were taken before the intake at 30 min, 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h after the single oxygen exposure.

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2022 Ara 30
Pulmonary Effects of One Week of Repeated Recreational Closed-Circuit Rebreather Dives in Cold Water
Gouin E, Balestra C, Orsat J, Dugrenot E & L’Her E.

Background and Objectives: The use of closed-circuit rebreathers (CCRs) in recreational diving is gaining interest. However, data regarding its physiological effects are still scarce. Immersion, cold water, hyperoxia, exercise or the equipment itself could challenge the cardiopulmonary system.

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2022 Ara 21
The Normobaric Oxygen Paradox-Hyperoxic Hypoxic Paradox: A Novel Expedient Strategy in Hematopoiesis Clinical Issues
Salvagno M, Coppalini G, Taccone FS, Strapazzon G, Mrakic-Sposta S, Rocco M, Khalife M & Balestra C.

Hypoxia, even at non-lethal levels, is one of the most stressful events for all aerobic organisms as it significantly affects a wide spectrum of physiological functions and energy production. Aerobic organisms activate countless molecular responses directed to respond at cellular, tissue, organ, and whole-body levels to cope with oxygen shortage allowing survival, including enhanced neo-angiogenesis and systemic oxygen delivery.

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Correlation between Patent Foramen Ovale, Cerebral "Lesions" and Neuropsychometric Testing in Experienced Sports Divers: Does Diving Damage the Brain?
Balestra C, Germonpré P.

SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation. Symptomatic neurological DCS has been shown to cause permanent damage to brain and spinal cord tissue; it has been suggested that divers with PFO may be at higher risk of developing subclinical brain lesions because of repeated asymptomatic embolization of decompression-induced nitrogen bubbles...

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2016 May 15
Continuous real-time monitoring and recording of glycemia during scuba diving: pilot study
Pieri M, Cialoni D, Marroni A.

Insulin-dependent diabetes has been considered a scuba diving contraindication. This is currently being reconsidered for well-controlled diabetes. We developed a real-time continuous glucose monitor (CGM) to check glycemia, or blood glucose (BG), during diving, both for prospective studies and to increase diabetic diver safety, allowing for real-time control of glycemia and hypoglycemia prevention. To ensure CGM measurement accuracy we tested the method under hyperbaric conditions...

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