Hydration Safety Campaign

Nitrogen is washed out by the lungs after a dive, but this washout will be less effective when the diver is dehydrated, increasing bubble formation and growth in the blood and body tissues which can lead to Decompression Sickness (DCS).

More water, less bubbles

DAN Europe launched the Hydration Safety Campaign in 2013 to promote the importance of hydration in diving. Why? Because dehydration is a contributing risk factor for Decompression Sickness (DCS) and where diving safety is concerned, DAN is concerned. The slogan "More Water, Less Bubbles" refers to the fact that good hydration significantly reduces the amount of circulating bubbles.

At the 2013-2014 dive shows, 3000 aluminium drinking bottles with the campaign's slogan were distributed amongst new and renewing DAN members. Posters and banners, reminding divers to drink enough water have been placed in different locations in Egypt, where due to the climate and the high amount of diving tourists, dehydration is one of the major risk factors. An email campaign was started amongst DAN members, informing them on how to avoid dehydration. Articles on hydration have been published in renown diving magazines and our safety campaign is spreading on various social media such as facebook and twitter. Presentations and lectures on the topic are held at diving and medical conferences and finally, the "more water, less bubbles" brochure is distributed at dive shows, diving centres and shops.

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Articles & Research
  • "More Water, Less Bubbles: avoiding Dehydration", by G. Thomas
    (Article published on Alert Diver Magazine, register at www.alertdiver.eu)
  • "Preventive effect of pre-dive hydration on bubble formation in divers", published on 4 March 2008 by E. Gempp, J.E. Blatteau, J.-M. Pontier, C. Balestra, P. Louge.
    This report shows that pre-dive hydration significantly decreases circulatory bubbles, thus offering a relatively easy means of reducing DCS.

  • DAN Europe's research on Surface Tension (ST).
    Surface tension (ST) is a potent natural force, typical of many substances, including body fluids and tissues. When dealing with bubbles, it is inversely proportional to the cubic root of the radius of the bubble. That is very small bubbles are subject to very high Surface Tension (pressure), larger bubbles are subject to lower Surface Tension. With high ST a bubble is subject to a force which contrasts its growth and may even lead to its disappearance. Low ST, on the contrary, will allow a bubble to grow faster and with less external impediments.The graph below (left) shows that Urine ST is similar to Blood and Plasma ST and can be easily measured, whilst providing good information on Blood and Tissue ST. On the right of the graph it is shown that high ST corresponds to low Urine Specific Gravity (diluted urine), and low ST to high Urine Specific Gravity (concentrated urine). This shows how a very diluted urine (a well hydrated diver) contributes to high ST in the body fluids and tissues and may contribute to prevent bubble growth, whereas the contrary may happen with concentrated urine (a not sufficiently hydrated diver).